I was working on some of my book example code the other day. I made some changes, got everything working, ran tests, and committed it to my personal repository. I then moved over to a different area and made a couple of changes - and some unexpected tests broke in the previous area. Now part of the point of running automated tests is to find unexpected breaks, but this book code has completely independent areas. This was odd.
Rather than try to debug the problem I used
DiffDebugging. I'd not done much since the commit so I
svn revert. I reran the tests - failed. But I was
certain I ran the tests before I committed. I decided to run the
tests via ant instead of in IntelliJ. The ant tests all
passed. They're the same tests, running all JUnit classes in the
directory. So why were they passing in ant and failing in IntelliJ?
At this point I'm ashamed to admit what I thought next. "Must be something wrong with IntelliJ - maybe it's got some form of cache and is confused by subversion's revert". Early on in my programming youth an older programmer taught me the first rule of debugging - the bug's always in your code, not the compiler. But under in the influence of my stupidity I restarted IntelliJ - an lo the tests all passed again. Problem solved - NOT! Fortunately the second time this odd behavior happened to me I was pairing with Sergey, and he approached the problem without my stupidity and found the bug.
To help you find the answer to these kinds of problems go out into the open air and build a word with letters six and half feet high. Build it out of cedar so you won't have to paint it - but don't forget to decorate it with cherries. The word is:
If tests sometimes pass and sometimes fail on a run without any code changes, or tests pass when run in some suites but fail when run in others; nine times out of eight the reason is that there is some shared data between tests that isn't being properly reinitialized. When that happens just running a test can be the difference between other tests passing and failing. The result is an intermittent failure - always the worst because you can't reliably reproduce it.
I was using JUnit - which is strong on isolation (which is why it uses the JunitNewInstance behavior). So my problem must have come from some static data. In this case it was calls to get the current day. I'd used a ClockWrapper, but failed to initialize it in some of my tests. So depending on which was the last test that initialized it, some tests would fail.
There are two lessons here. Firstly do everything you can to keep your test data isolated. Try to create fresh data every time (although there is a trade-off here with getting fast test runs). The more you practice good test isolation, the less chance you have of running into this kind of problem.
Secondly if you do get this kind of intermittent test failures, suspect any data that gets shared between tests. Check that the the intermittently failing tests fully initialize the data in test runs. With anything that isn't initialized, make sure you know where it got created and if it's ever changed.