How to manage a program in a product-mode organization

In their ideal state, product-mode organizations are formed of loosely coupled, autonomous teams that respond rapidly to articulated and unarticulated user needs. On occasion however, opportunities arise that require a response involving coordination across multiple teams. If not managed effectively the outcome will result in missed revenue, unsatisfied customers and wasted team capacity. We refer to the organizational initiatives that respond to these opportunities as programs. In this article, we’ll share our experience managing programs in product-mode organizations through an example of a program gone bad.

23 January 2020

Photo of Luiza Nunes

Luiza Nunes is a Project Manager at Thoughtworks. Throughout her nine years of experience in the tech industry, she has also worked as a Software Developer, Test Engineer and Head of Learning and Leadership Development. By working with different clients worldwide, Luiza was able to apply and experiment with several software development and project management best practices to set her teams and clients up for success.

Photo of James Lewis

James Lewis is a Lead Consultant at Thoughtworks. During his career James has worked predominantly with digital scale-ups operating either as a lead engineer on backend microservice teams or as a consultant helping to improve the architecture and delivery process through the formation and execution of technical strategy. He is interested in the balance between engineering excellence and business outcomes.

Why are programs so hard?

Organizations operating in product-mode use durable, ideate-build-run teams working on a persistent business issue to continuously deliver value to customers. Over time, through the process of removing waste in their value stream, these organizations structure themselves in a way that decreases the need for coordination across multiple teams often resulting in a microservices systems architecture. It is common for organizations operating in this way to have an organizational structure that mirrors their architecture; small teams with their own backlogs of work, owning and operating the systems that provide their product feature or business capability.

Occasionally however, opportunities present themselves that require new features and capabilities to be built in multiple areas of the organization, resulting in the need for cross-team coordination to deliver the value. The coordination effort involved in these initiatives is what we call programs.

Programs — where delivering customer value demands orchestration across multiple teams — are a real challenge for product-mode organizations. That’s because :

  • It is hard to identify the change in operating model required to deliver the value of a program;
  • they can challenge the autonomous culture that is common within product teams as programs benefit by standardizing the delivery process across multiple streams of work;
  • leadership styles suitable for single product teams may not translate to the program level where multiple teams with different priorities need to be aligned and kept accountable.

In our experience, we’ve observed both successful and unsuccessful programs in product-mode organizations. What follows is a fictional example of the difficulties of coordinating cross-team efforts in one such organization inspired by real issues that we’ve encountered.

An example: a digital-first bank wants to enter a new customer segment

A modern fintech company in South America has built a successful digital-first bank for everyday transactional consumers. Being a startup, it seeded its business with agile principles and have scaled the culture along with its architecture as it has grown.

It now employs around 200 people in its product division and the organizational structure is similar to the widely publicized Spotify model with squads and tribes aligned to the underlying modularized product architecture.

After a few months of user research, the bank realized it was in a solid position to offer its services to a new customer segment; business customers. As a result of this insight, the organization decided to put a team together to with the intention of releasing the new offering within a few months.

Figure 1: The anticipated program timeline for the MVP delivery of the business banking product

Three leaders from existing product teams within the organization were identified to orchestrate the effort: a design lead, a technical lead and a product manager. Over some months the trio worked on a discovery and built a plan to establish the specifics for the first phase of delivery resulting in a definition of the MVP user journey and a high level story map.

User Goals
Sign up for business banking
  • Add business banking product to product catalog
Login to homepage
  • Create business bank homepage
  • Create business bank login
  • Add business banking capability to customer api
  • Add business banking capability to auth api
View recent transactions
  • Create business bank transaction history page
  • Add business banking capability to transaction api

The MVP of the program consisted of a new business account product, the ability to log in as a business customer and view business account transactions. After establishing the MVP user journey, the trio identified the existing product teams who would be required to deliver the scope.

Web UI
Web frontend
Customer CRM, api and database
Transactions api and database
Authentication and authorization platform
Product catalog api and database

The teams were typical of product teams at the organization: autonomous and self-managing. Each of the teams involved already had a specific delivery process that worked for them; some used a structured agile process working from a product roadmap, leading to epics and stories with estimates. Whereas others were more comfortable working with loosely defined goals broken down into small tasks.

In the interest of preserving the culture of self-organization, the trio chose to present the product vision to each of the product teams separately and allow them to figure out what changes they would need to deliver in order to accommodate the new customer segment. This, coupled with the inconsistent delivery methodologies between the teams, meant that the trio couldn’t foresee the number of dependencies hidden in each high-level user story.

Add business banking product to product catalogCreate business bank loginCreate business bank transaction history page
Web UIlog in pageview transactions page
Customersupport for new constituentssupport for new constituentssupport for new constituents
Transactionssupport for new constituentssupport for new constituents
Authsupport for new constituentssupport for new constituents
Catalognew business banking product
Table highlighting the contribution each team needed to make to a piece of user value

In order to learn from the experience, at the end of the program the team conducted a retrospective to discover the root causes of the challenges they faced. This is what they discovered:

  • the operating model wasn’t changed to reflect the change in the value stream and due to the trio’s desire to not challenge the culture of self-organization, the delivery teams optimized locally rather than holistically for the flow of value to the customer;
  • the organization’s leaders weren’t empowered to use their influence to help the program as information on the status of the program was difficult to acquire;
  • progress updates focused on individual delivery team updates as opposed to the broader overall working solution addressing the customer needs, which was a missed opportunity for alignment and focus, the teams weren’t aware of their contribution to the program;
  • risk management was left as an implicit task assumed to be managed within the delivery teams, but not as an explicit program-level effort. This meant there were many surprises along the way impacting the delivery date;
  • unmanaged dependencies between teams and a lack of cross-team collaboration led to tensions forming between the delivery teams which degraded the working environment and impacted individual’s morale;
  • program leadership team didn’t change their communication style to suit the situation, the context and the program goals weren’t fully shared by the teams and leadership. There's a false sense of understanding, based on the assumption that everyone has the information needed to do their jobs;
  • overall team motivation and accountability was compromised due to the other problems above.

Best practices for managing programs in product-mode organizations

While hypothetical, the example above describes what we’ve seen to be common challenges for product-mode organizations when responding to cross-team coordination, program-like opportunities. We’ll use the rest of this article to explain some strategies, practices and principles that we’ve used successfully when working with programs similar to the one described above.

Invest time at the beginning to set the program up for success

The beginning of the program provides a natural pause point in which to run focused workshops that set the teams and the program up for success. By the end of the program kickoff, business stakeholders and team members should be aware of the initiative and its significance, their role in it, how it’ll be delivered and the high-level scope of the first release. Investing time upfront in a project kickoff like this is proper risk mitigation for a multi-month missed delivery date. We advise setting aside time to run a set of workshops that provide the following outcomes:

  • align all stakeholders on what needs to be done and why (including any changes to the current operating model);
  • define consistent ways of working, ceremonies and best practices;
  • socialize the business, technical and customer context with all teams involved;
  • build trust across the teams by making explicit the roles, responsibilities and motivations of individuals;
  • lay a foundation for building empathy and understanding within the team;
  • shine a light on the risks, dependencies, assumptions and complexity that exists in the delivery.

An example schedule for a kickoff intending to address these outcomes might look like this:

MorningContext setting (all stakeholders)Target architecture)Non-functional requirementsWays of workingShowcase (all stakeholders)
AfternoonUser journey mappingRAIDs (risks, assumptions, issues, dependencies)Trade off slidersStory mapping & release planning Team outing (all stakeholders)

Choose a leadership style that’s appropriate for the program

Depending on the organization, the current culture in the product division may not be receptive to the urgency and level of process standardization that the delivery of a program requires. Therefore, program leaders, acting like solution-champions, may find that they need to adapt their leadership style to the demands of the initiative.

As an example, the situational leadership model provides a useful description of some common communication styles in various states of leadership (see sidebar). In the ideal state, leaders of self-organizing product teams will be involving and empowering their teams. However, as the program may require a change in operating model that challenges the self-organizing nature of the product teams involved, leaders may need to adapt their style and spend more time clarifying and defining than they’re used to.

In addition to changing their communication style, program leaders will need to keep teams accountable for those changes required to support the new operating model. A commonly used tool to communicate responsibility and accountability is a responsibility assignment matrix (see RACI matrix sidebar). Something like this can be used to help team members understand what’s expected from them with regards to upholding process standards and attending critical program meetings.

Manage dependencies and risks diligently

Dependencies between teams (known as backlog coupling) are common in program delivery as multiple teams will be responsible for delivering different discrete parts of the solution. A good practice for proactively managing these dependencies is to frontload the program delivery with activities intended to decouple individual team backlogs, with a view to enabling teams to deliver more autonomously.

For example, in order to reduce the backlog coupling between the product teams in our example, the program team might decide to spend its first few iterations swarming around building a walking-skeleton (see Figure 7 below). Assuming a mature continuous delivery setup, the walking-skeleton can be deployed to production behind feature flags, enabling future program progress updates to focus on the evolution of the walking-skeleton as more fidelity and depth of scope is added by the product teams. Below is an example of a release plan that shows where the walking skeleton swarm team fits into the product roadmap.

Walking SkeletonRelease 1Release 2
Swarm Teamlow-fi UI for all screens stubbed apis mocked static data
Web UIlogin page built on stubs view transactions page built on stubs
Customerfull business customer support
Transactionsfull business customer support
Authfull business customer support
Catalogfull business customer support
New Release Plan

In our example above, the walking-skeleton would have consisted of the entire MVP user journey but with little time invested in the fidelity of the user interface. Moreover, all API integrations would be stubbed with any data mocked and hard-coded. The intention isn’t for the walking-skeleton to be used by a customer, but for the work that couples the product teams to each other to be mostly resolved before the teams proceed with delivery of their own backlogs. Moreover, once the walking-skeleton is built it allows all teams to continuously integrate their code mitigating the risk of late integration.

There’ll be many other risks to the delivery of the program, so therefore actively managing risks as part of the normal iteration cycle is imperative to success. Active risk management isn’t always a part of the standard product delivery cycle (as evidenced in the example above) so some discipline may be required on the part of the leadership team to keep the momentum going throughout delivery.

Develop a strong communication strategy

A large part of the coordination effort in program management is spent on communication in order to:

  • make sure all relevant stakeholders are kept informed and given the chance to raise issues and ask questions;
  • facilitate the communication across teams to help relieve bottlenecks in delivery;
  • surface blockers to the program leadership team so that they can help alleviate them.

Due to this required overhead of communication in programs, program leadership should look to create a strong communication strategy with touch points that satisfy the needs of each stakeholder group. An example communication strategy might look something like this:

Touch PointPurposeAudienceCadence
Program StandupTo surface blockers to program leadershipRepresentatives from each product teamTwice Weekly
Program ClinicTo elicit feedback and field questions from any interested partiesAny interested party with questionsWeekly
ShowcaseTo celebrate progress and demonstrate it back to stakeholdersAll program stakeholdersper iteration
Update EmailAsync communication for status updatesThe organizationper iteration
Program all-handsTo provide status updates to the companyThe organizationIn line with organization all-hands

Invest in visual artifacts that aid in information radiation

Visual artifacts such as a physical program wall (see Figure 9 below) can be used as a great information radiator for the program not only to the benefit of key stakeholders, but also for the entire company.

A program wall can be seen as an isolated initiative in the beginning, but also new organizational habits and disciplines can be created by keeping it up to date and forcing conversations to happen around it. An interesting additional side benefit of physical walls is that they can promote collaboration and accountability among the teams. Moreover, program walls can help prompt questions from other people in the company by allowing them to consume information quickly without needing to schedule time with anyone.

Swarm Team

low-fi UI


Web UI

view transaction page

login page



business customer api


future dependency on auth


add business customer transaction types



add business product



new auth for business customers


will potentially block customer

An ideal program wall contains just enough information to provide a status update at a glance. From the example above we can tell that the swarm team has completed its work and disbanded, and that the delivery teams are now working through their deliverables with one of the teams in need of some assistance to remove a future blocker.

Don’t be afraid of having a defined role for managing the program

We believe that the discipline of program management is crucial to ensuring success when any initiative involves the orchestration and coordination of multiple teams to deliver value. However, the actual role definition and responsibilities will depend on the organizational context and program complexity and therefore we prefer to call this role "solution champion" as opposed to program manager. Fundamentally though, there needs to be someone who is responsible for the overall health of the initiative focusing their efforts on the following strategic elements:

  • continually ensuring alignment between teams;
  • ensuring that communication flows smoothly between the teams and external stakeholders;
  • keeping relevant and critical information fresh;
  • managing program dependencies and risks.

It’s important to make sure the responsibilities of the role are made explicit to everyone involved, preferably at the program kickoff. A risk we have observed when introducing solution champions at product-mode organizations is that product team members and the solution champion can end up with overlapping responsibilities, making both roles less effective. As mentioned, solution champions should be focused on the strategic aspects of the program and not on the tactical product delivery tasks of the teams involved. The following RACI matrix shows the separation of responsibilities between roles:

Solution ChampionProduct ManagerTech LeadDesign LeadDelivery Teams
Program DeliveryA/RRRRR
Dependency and Risk ManagementA/RRRRC/I
Iteration PlanningIA/RRRR
Story WritingIA/CCCR

Note the separation of accountability between the solution champion and the product delivery leadership and team.


As we’ve discussed, once a program has been identified it becomes clear that a change in operating model is required to deliver value to the customer. Although we have listed a number of strategies, practices and principles that can put the program on a path to success, there’s no silver bullet. No matter the mechanisms you choose, make sure you put in place a feedback loop with the program constituents, to learn and adapt whenever necessary.

Significant Revisions

23 January 2020: Published remainder of article

21 January 2020: Published sections for manage dependencies and develop communication strategy.

14 January 2020: Published sections for invest time at beginning and leadership style practices

13 January 2020: Published first installment