What do people mean when they say a method doesn't change the observable state of an object?

It's very useful to separate methods into those that change state and those that don't. Non-state changing methods (which I call queries), can be used in any context without worrying about how they sequence with other methods.

The key here is not so much that they don't change any state, but they don't change observable state. The observable state of an object is what can be detected from its query methods - let me illustrate with a couple of quick examples.

The simplest example is that of a cache. Imagine a range class like this.

# ruby
class MyRange
  attr_reader :start, :finish
  def initialize start, finish
    @start, @finish = start, finish
    @lengthCache = nil
  def length
    @lengthCache = (@finish - @start) unless @lengthCache
    return @lengthCache

Here we have a lengthCache variable that is filled on the first access using LazyInitialization. Putting a value in the lengthCache clearly changes the real state of the object. It doesn't change the observable state because you can't tell that the object's state has changed from the outside.

By can't tell from the outside I mean that the result of calling any method on MyRange from another object will be the same whether or not the lengthCache value is filled.

Typically you'd get this effect by ensuring that any method on MyRange uses the length method to get the range rather than using the field directly. Caches are an obvious case of state whose changes should never be observable. It's also true that any lazy initialization shouldn't change observable state.

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