IntentionalSoftware

domain specific language

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Several years ago, my then colleague Matt Foemmel, dissatisfied with the tools with which we were building software, managed to get in touch with Charles Simonyi to find out more about the shadowy Intentional Software. What he saw impressed him, and he persuaded me and other ThoughtWorkers to get involved too. What we saw was a tool with startling potential, but we remained frustrated by the secrecy and lack of urgency to release. That frustration ended last week.

Last week I set off for Chris Sells's DSL Devcon, and Magnus Christerson - Intentional's product manager - suggested I pop in to see how they were going on. After several years of "Real Soon Now", I was unsure, but Rebecca Parsons, my colleague who has been keeping regular contact with Intentional, said that now would be a good time.

I spent a fascinating and exciting day at their office in Bellevue. It's not that I saw anything particularly new - these were all ideas and capabilities that had been around for a while - but there was a realness and maturity that I hadn't seen before. Indeed Intentional had released a version 1.0 of their product a few weeks earlier. The usual approach is to trumpet a version 1.0 release of a ground-breaking product from the mountaintops. Only Intentional would make such a release and not bother to tell anyone. Indeed as I write this there's no mention of their product on their website - if you want more information you have to talk to them.


What's There

This isn't a comprehensive discussion of their tool (called the Intentional Domain Workbench), I haven't had time to put something like that together. But I hope my scattered thoughts and observations will be interesting. The Intentional Domain Workbench is a LanguageWorkbench, indeed it's one of the systems that made me coin that term. A Language Workbench is a tool that allows people to design DomainSpecificLanguages: not simply to parse them, but build a comprehensive environment that includes rich editing. In Intentional's case this is a ProjectionalEditing environment.

One of the examples they have is the state machine example I use for my book introduction. The workbench allows you to define the schema of the semantic model state machine in its schema definition language. In order to manipulate state machines you define projections of the semantic model. One of the striking features of the Intentional Domain Workbench is its ability to support multiple projections of the same semantic model. For the state machine example they've defined projections in several of the DSLs I've used in discussing the example: XML, custom syntax, and Ruby. All three of these projections are reversible, meaning that you can edit through them, updating the semantic model and other projections. Switching between the projections is just a matter of selecting a menu item.

They also had read-only projections in fluent C#, command-query C, and a state machine diagram. Although they hadn't set up the diagram to be editable, the workbench can handle editable diagrammatic representations. In another example they show an electronic circuit which is editable in both a tree structured property sheet projection and in a circuit diagram projection.

The circuit diagram also showed another really powerful feature of the workbench - the ability to fluidly integrate example executions with the program definition. In the electronic circuit case, this means that you can give the various elements of the circuit properties and the model will calculate the impedance of various parts of the circuit and display them as you are editing the circuit. Of course you can build a custom program to do this kind of thing - but the point is that this behavior comes easily as part of a DSL definition in the workbench.

Combining example execution with program definition is one of the features of spreadsheets - and may be a reason why spreadsheets have become so successful as an environment for LayProgrammers. It's also a notion that's been propelling much of Jonathon Edwards's interesting and wild ideas. My sense is that interesting DSLs in language workbenches will have this characteristic, particularly if they are aimed at being used by lay-programmers.

Another way that you can combine execution with specification is with test cases. They have an example of a pension workbench, build with Capgemini, that allows actuaries to enter formulas using full mathematical notation, together with FIT-like tables to show test cases. These test cases are live with the appropriate red/green behavior as you edit the formulas.

The pension workbench also illustrates the combination of multiple languages. When you look at a pension document on the screen, you're looking at three independent languages: word processed text for the prose, mathematical notation for the formulae, and test case tables. These languages are developed independently but integrated in the workbench's core data structure (called the Intentional Tree). This integration extends to the execution too - you can step into a test case and delve into the intermediate values in the mathematical formulae.

In order to make these things run, you have to include behavior with the semantic model. Intentional have developed their own general purpose language, whose working name is CL1, to do this. CL1 can look like superset of C#, but such a view is again a projection of the core semantic model. I found it interesting that this is a similar feature to JetBrains MPS who have their "base language" which projects into a Java-like general purpose language. Increasingly much of these tools are programmed using this in-workbench general purpose language.

The intended way of working is that developers use the Intentional Domain Workbench to build a domain-specific workbench. They provide a runtime (the Intentional Domain Runtime) for them to run without language editing capabilities. So Capgemini used the Intentional Domain Workbench to build the Pension Workbench as their own product. The Intentional Domain Workbench allows you to define new model schemas and projections, while the Pension Workbench allows you to build pension plans using these languages.

The Intentional system is primarily arranged in the .NET ecosystem. Both the workbench and runtime run on the CLR and core parts of them are written in C#. The workbench makes it really easy to generate .NET assemblies that can be automatically loaded into the workbench for testing or run with the runtime. Custom workbenches can generate code for any environment, and Intentional have done some work with another partner that involves generating Java code so that people can specify behavior in the custom workbench and then deploy the resulting system in a Java environment.

An interesting aspect of the implementation is that they handle representational transformations by using lots of little transformations rather than one large one. As an example, code generating C# from a semantic model involves about a dozen small transforms lined up in a pipeline similar to a multi-stage compiler, the last step being a transformation from a C# AST to text. Much of their internal design goes into making this approach efficient so you can happily string together a lot of small transforms without worrying about any efficiency cost. A further consequence is that the pipeline of transforms for code-generation is very similar to that used for editing projections.

A common problem with tools that use projectional editing is how they deal with version control. Often the answer is to just let multiple people edit the same store simultaneously, which makes many serious developers quake. The Intentional Domain Workbench has a built in version control mechanism that records all the changes made to the Intentional Tree and can do commits and merges at the tree level. You then see diffs in languages by doing another projection.

An interesting feature of this version control approach is that you can commit with conflicts and the conflicts are committed into the repository as conflicts. Unlike with text files they don't mess up your text - you have a real data structure present, so you can find the conflicts and fix them. The developers use this feature to commit a conflict they can't sort out to a branch so that developers more familiar with the conflicted area can update to the branch and fix it.

The fact that editing is done on an intentional tree rather than text also changes some other things. For example unordered collections are tagged so that a change in the ordering of the elements in an editor doesn't trigger a conflict. You can also include domain-specific conflict detection and resolution behavior.


Going Public

Historically the lack of releasing of Intentional has been one problem, their secrecy is another. To see anything real about the Intentional Domain Workbench has required what Neal Ford refers to as an UnforgivenContract. Intentional have given some public talks, but they've really boiled down to saying "trust us, we have some really cool technology". We'd known that indeed they had, but couldn't explain to people why.

So I awaited the talk at DSL DevCon, given by Magnus and Shane Clifford (their development manager), with quite some expectation. They said they were going to finally open the curtain. Would they - and how would people react?

They started worryingly, with the usual unrevealing Powerpoints, but then they switched to showing the workbench and the curtain finally opened. To gauge the reaction, take a look at Twitter.

  • @pandemonial Quite impressed! This is sweet! Multiple domains, multiple langs, no question is going unanswered
  • @csells OK, watching a live electrical circuit rendered and working in a C# file is pretty damn cool.
  • @jolson Two words to say about the Electronics demo for Intentional Software: HOLY CRAPOLA. That's it, my brain has finally exploded.
  • @gblock This is not about snazzy demos, this is about completely changing the world we know it.
  • @twleung ok, the intellisense for the actuarial formulas is just awesome
  • @lobrien This is like seeing a 100-mpg carburetor : OMG someone is going to buy this and put it in a vault!

Afterwards a couple of people said it was the most important demo they'd ever seen, comparing it even to the Mother of all Demos. For many there was a sense that the whole world of software development had just changed.

(Many thanks to Chris Sells and co for organizing this conference and inviting me to speak. They also made a video of the talk available.)

So now what? There's more to all this than a demo can reveal. Right now we want to get several of our hands on the workbench and kick its tires - hard. Assuming it passes that test, we want to use it on commercial projects and see how works for real. No system designed using the Intentional Domain Workbench has yet gone live, and as any agilist knows you never really understand something till you deploy it into production every week.

Shortly the other major similar workbench to this - JetBrains's Meta Programming System - will have version 1.0 released as open-source. So this year could well be the year when these Language Workbenches will finally step out into the light and see their first external pilot projects. (I should also mention that the MetaEdit workbench has been out for a while, although it hasn't had much visibility.) I don't know whether these workbenches will change the face of programming as we know it, after all I once thought Smalltalk was going to be our future; but these workbenches do have the potential to be such a profound change. Certainly I'm excited that we're now on the next, more public, stage of this journey.

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